The History of the Peoples of the Eastern Desert
from Prehistory to the Present
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General chronology of the lower and middle Nile region
Southeast Egypt Northeast Sudan
Lower Palaeolithic
500,000 – 200,000 BCE
Middle Palaeolithic
200,000 – 45,000 BCE
Upper Palaeolithic
45,000 – 22,000 BCE
Late Palaeolithic
22,000 – 9,000 BCE
Epipalaeolitic (Mesolithic)
9000 – 6000 BCE
Early Neolithic
6000 – 5000 BCE
Fayum – Badarian
5000–4200 BCE
Khartoum Neolithic
5000–3000 BCE
Merimde – Naqada
4200–3100 BCE
3800–3000 BCE
Khartoum Neolithic
Predynastic Egypt
3100–2575 BCE
Lower Nubia
Pre-Kerma Culture
3000–500 BCE
Old Kingdom
2725–2125 BCE
2300–1520 BCE
Kingdom of Kerma
(Kushite Kingdom)
2500–1520 BCE
First Intermediate Period
2125–1975 BCE
Middle Kingdom
1975–1640 BCE
Second Intermediate Period
1630–1520 BCE
New Kingdom
1540–1075 BCE
Third Intermediate Period
1075–715 BCE
Kingdom of Napata
(Kushite Kingdom)
1075–300 BCE
25th Dynasty
7703–657 BCE
Late Period
(Persian invasions)
  664–332 BCE

Ptolemaic Empire
332 BCE–30 CE
Kingdom of Meroe
(Kushite Kingdom)
300 BCE–350 CE
Roman Empire
30–330 CE
Byzantine Empire
330–616 CE
Kingdom of Nobatia
(Ballana Culture)
300–700 CE
Kingdom of Makuria
(protected by the baqt)
500–1323 CE
Persian Invasion
616–628 CE
Byzantine Empire
629–641 CE

Rashidun caliphs
641–658 CE
Umayyad Caliphate
658–750 CE
Abbasid Caliphate
750–969 CE
Kingdom of Makuria
Fatimid caliphs
969–1171 CE
Ayyubid Sultanate
1171–1250 CE
Mamluk sultans
1250–1517 CE
Banu Kanz (Awlad Kenz)
1323–1517 CE
Ottoman Empire
1517–1798 CE
Sultanate of Sinnar
1504–1821 CE
Invasion of Napoleon
1798–1801 CE

Khedives and kings of the Dynasty of Mohamed Ali
Mohamed Ali (1805–1848) – Fu'ad II (1952–1953)

Increasingly controlled by the British Empire
Mahdi Revolt
1883–1898 CE
Unilateral independence
22 February 1922
Anglo-Egyptian Sudan
1899–1956 CE
Republic of Egypt
18 June 1953
Full independence
18 June 1956
Republic of Sudan
1 January 1956
Popular revolution
25 Jan.–11 Feb. 2011
Republic of Sudan
Republic of
South Sudan
9 June 2011

After N.Y. Adams (1984), Nubia: Corridor to Africa, Princeton (Princeton University), London (Allen Lane);
and J. Baines and J. Malek (2000), Cultural Atlas of Ancient Egypt, Abingdon (Andromeda Oxford Ltd.);
see also:
H. Barnard (2007), "Additional Remarks on Blemmyes, Beja and Eastern Desert Ware,"
Ägypten und Levante 17: 23-31.

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Netherlands-Flemish Institute in Cairo
1, Sharia Dr. Mahmoud Azmi
11211 Zamalek, Cairo
Arab Republic of Egypt
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Cotsen Institute of Archaeology at UCLA
PO-Box 951510
Los Angeles, CA 90095
United States of America

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